Technical essentials of the hottest Sanxia agricul

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Technical points of Sanxia agricultural machinery

(I) technical content

crop harvesting mechanization technology refers to the technology of harvesting, threshing, cleaning and other operations of crops with mechanical equipment. Summer harvest mainly involves the harvest of wheat, rice and rape. The correct application of harvest mechanization technology can ensure timely harvest, reduce losses and reduce costs

(II) key points of implementation

1 Rice and wheat harvesting mechanization technology

China's rice and wheat harvesting mechanization technology has been basically mature, and cross region harvesting is the main operation mode. Mechanized harvesting operations should be done safely and with high quality according to the harvest characteristics of different regions and crops

(1) fully prepare and harvest in time. Select appropriate work tools, do a good job in the training of machine hands and the maintenance and adjustment of the machine before harvesting, and ensure the good technical state of the harvesting machine. According to the regional climatic conditions, crop variety characteristics and agronomic requirements, organize the scheduling of machines and tools, determine the best time and route for harvesting, and ensure the operation efficiency

(2) correctly adjust the working parameters of machines and tools. There are great differences in crop properties and harvest conditions such as planting density, straw height, mu yield, grain grass ratio of crops around the country. During operation, select representative plots for trial cutting inspection, and timely adjust the combine harvester, such as gravure clearance, reel position, stubble height, vibrating screen inclination, etc., to reduce harvest loss and crushing rate, improve grain cleanliness, and ensure harvest quality

2. Rape mechanized harvesting technology

currently used rape union www.mechnet com. Cn/"> harvesters are mostly improved from rice wheat combine harvesters. It is necessary to select appropriate harvest conditions, grasp the harvest opportunity, reduce the loss rate and improve the mechanized benefits of harvest.

(1) Harvest mode selection. The direct seeding rape with small plant type, high density and consistent maturity should adopt combine harvester; For direct seeding rape and transplanted rape with large plant type, it is appropriate to use segmented harvesting machinery, or manual cutting and drying and machine threshing, so as to reduce the loss of rapeseed

(2) selection of harvest time. Judging from the water content of rapeseed, the appropriate moisture content of rapeseed for cutting and drying operation is 35 ~ 40% and that for picking operation is 12 ~ 15%; 15 ~ 20% is suitable for combined harvest. Too high moisture content will affect the threshing quality, too low moisture content and too large loss rate. Judging from the color of rape pods, 70 ~ 80% of the pods of the whole plant are yellow green to light yellow. When the seeds turn from green to reddish brown, they are cut and dried. 4 ~ 7 days after cutting and drying, they are picked up and threshed in the morning and evening or on cloudy days. The combined harvest should be carried out when the canopies are slightly raised at the maturity stage of rape

(3) reasonably adjust the machines and tools. According to the rape plant type and lodging situation, adjust the position and speed of the reel (the appropriate speed is 21 ~ 25r/min) to reduce the impact on the rape; According to the maturity of rape, adjust the drum speed and gravure clearance to improve the removal rate and reduce the crushing rate. For fields with high plant cross density, harvesters with side cutting devices should be selected

II. Mechanized Straw Returning technology

(I) technical content

Mechanized Straw Returning technology is a technology that uses mechanized means to return crop straw to the field after treatment, including straw crushing and paddy field straw returning. Mechanized Straw Returning not only makes rational and efficient use of straw resources, prevents environmental pollution caused by straw burning or waste, but also fertilizes the soil and increases crop yield

(II) key points of implementation

straw crushing and returning to the field technology: straw crushing machinery is used to crush the harvested straw of wheat, rice, rape and other crops on the spot and evenly sprinkle it on the ground to cover and return to the field, and the next crop is sown directly with no till planter, or it is ploughed and returned to the field, and it is sown or planted after land preparation. When straw is crushed and returned to the field, some nitrogen fertilizer should be applied appropriately to promote the decomposition of straw. The technology has the widest application range and the largest area during the "three summer" period

when the combine harvester harvests wheat and rape, the crushing length of wheat straw or rape straw shall not be greater than 15cm, and it shall be spread evenly; When ploughing and burying, the depth of ploughing shall not be less than 20cm, and when rotary tillage and burying, the depth of ploughing shall not be less than 15cm. After ploughing, the soil shall be raked thoroughly, compacted and leveled to eliminate the overhead soil caused by straw, so as to create conditions for sowing and later crop growth

paddy field straw returning Technology: it is suitable for paddy fields in South China. After mechanical harvest and threshing, wheat straw, rape straw or straw are thrown back to the field, and after watering and softening the soil and fertilizing, paddy field straw burying and soil preparation machinery such as straw burying driving rake and rotary tillage straw burying machine are used to bury and press the straw back to the field. The key points of technical operation are:

(1) dry land should be irrigated for 12 hours, and the water depth of the field surface is cm. The operation can be carried out after the soil is soft

(2) the operation speed of machines and tools should be selected according to the soil conditions and the amount of straw returned to the field. The stubble of wheat or rape can be directly ploughed and returned to the field with a disc plough or a reverse stubble chopper. When using a double roll stubble chopper, a boat type rotary tillage straw burying machine or a reverse stubble chopper, the operation can meet the requirements once. When using ordinary rotary cultivator, generally operate twice. The first time is slow, the tillage depth is shallow, and the second time is slightly faster. When reaching the specified tillage depth, the operation direction of the two times should be crossed

(3) crops with fine straw and easy to decompose can be returned to the field in full, and those with straw that is not easy to decompose (such as barley) can be returned to the field by 50% - 60%. The appropriate amount of straw returned to the field is about 300kg per mu, and the remaining straw can be comprehensively utilized through feed, base materials, industrial raw materials and other ways

(4) in order to prevent the decomposition of straw covering paddy field from producing harmful gas and burning root seedlings, the water depth of rice seedlings after planting should not exceed 10cm. Valve rotor pump

(III) work tools

"Sanxia" wheat straw crushing and returning to the field. The main machines required are wheat combine harvesters and supporting straw crushing and throwing devices, straw crushers, deep ploughs, land preparation machinery, etc

the machines and tools required for paddy field straw returning mainly include paddy field rotary cultivator, boat type rotary cultivator, paddy field grass driving rake, paddy field disk plow, double axle stubble removal rotary cultivator, etc

III. conservation tillage technology

(I) technical content

conservation tillage is an advanced agricultural production technology that covers the ground with straw residues, minimizes tillage, implements less no tillage, fertilization and sowing, and combines herbicide weed control and timely subsoiling. The implementation of conservation tillage can protect the ecological environment, fertilize the soil, save resources, reduce production costs and increase farmers' income

(II) key points of implementation

1 Choose the technical mode according to local conditions

China has a vast territory, including seven types of areas: the Yellow River, the Huaihe River and the sea, the intersection of agriculture and animal husbandry, the Loess Plateau, cold and dry farming in the northeast, inland agriculture in the northwest, double cropping rice in the South and water and dry rotation, and four are closely related to the "three summers". There are several different modes in each type of area, which should be selected pertinently and continuously improved in practice

(1) Huang Huai Hai type area. It mainly grows wheat and corn twice a year. There are technical modes such as annual straw mulching no tillage sowing, annual straw mulching less no tillage sowing, corn stubble mulching no tillage sowing, etc

(2) loess plateau type area. It mainly grows wheat and corn once a year, and has technical modes such as straw mulching no tillage sowing, straw mulching less tillage sowing, small grain conservation tillage, stubble soil consolidation no tillage sowing, etc

(3) Southern double cropping rice type area. It is mainly planted with two crops of rice a year, and there are two technical modes of early rice and late rice cultivation with less and no tillage

(4) areas of water and drought rotation. There are two technical modes: rice wheat (oil) rotation and rice potato rotation

2. Focus on four operations

(1) straw and topsoil treatment. Straw mulching is the key to water, soil and fertilizer conservation. Therefore, as much straw as possible should be left on the surface and evenly distributed. If the coverage is seriously uneven or the ground surface is uneven, straw crushers, disc harrows, etc. need to be used to cover and distribute the straw evenly or level the ground surface

(2) no tillage seeding operation. It is required that there is no blockage in the operation, the sowing quality is good, the chemical fertilizer can be applied deeply, and the compaction quality after sowing is good, so as to eliminate the overhead soil and meet the requirements of moisture conservation. For the no tillage seed bed in the high-yield area with two crops a year, it is also required that the amount of straw above the seed Belt should be less (the coverage rate should not exceed 30%), so as to facilitate the emergence of crops; The soil on both sides and about 3cm below the seed Belt should be loose to facilitate root growth

(3) subsoiling operation. For some heavy, barren or heavily compacted soil, deep loosening should be carried out in time, with a depth of about 30cm

(4) weed pest control. In order to control weeds without spraying more herbicides, in areas with serious weeds (such as agricultural and pastoral areas), the combination of spraying, machinery, manpower, biological control and other measures is advocated. Pests and diseases are mainly prevented by seed dressing with pesticides. In case of pests and diseases, insecticides should be sprayed in time to improve the yield of materials and the stability of performance

(III) work tools

in areas where wheat and corn are harvested twice a year, power driven wheat, corn no till planter, straw crusher, subsoiling machine, disc harrow and other machines and tools shall be selected

in areas with one crop per year, machines and tools such as no till seeders, straw crushers, subsoiling machines, shallow scarifiers, etc. shall be selected

in Wheat (rape) and rice rotation areas, paddy field stubble removal rotary burying machine, rice transplanting machine, rice no tillage direct seeding machine, etc. are selected

(IV) precautions

try to use supporting technologies that are conducive to increasing production to improve the yield of conservation tillage. For example: formula fertilization technology, scientifically determine the amount and variety of fertilization; Furrow irrigation technology, using the furrows and ridges formed when sowing wheat, can save land and irrigation water

IV. mechanized subsoiling technology

(I) technical content

mechanized subsoiling technology is a technology that uses machinery to loosen the soil, break the plough bottom layer and deepen the tillage layer. The subsoiling operation does not turn over the soil. Under the condition of maintaining the original soil layer, it improves the permeability of the soil, improves the water storage capacity of the soil, and ripens the deep soil, which is conducive to the deep rooting of crops and increases crop yield

(II) key points of implementation

1 Subsoiling time. Subsoiling is mainly applicable to dry land crops, and generally should be carried out under the condition of appropriate soil moisture. Subsoiling is mainly carried out in the areas with two crops a year after the summer wheat harvest, so as to store more rainfall in the rainy season. Spring drought is easy to occur in the area with one crop a year in the north, so subsoiling should be carried out in autumn to store rain and snow. The subsoiling cycle can be determined according to the soil conditions, generally once every 2 ~ 4 years

2. Deep loosening depth. The determination of subsoiling depth is based on the principle of breaking the bottom of the plow. The subsoiling depth of traditional cultivated land is generally 35 ~ 40cm, and that of no tillage land is generally 25 ~ 30cm

3. Deep loosening method. It is divided into omni-directional subsoiling and interval subsoiling. V-shaped subsoiling shovel is generally used for all-round subsoiling. There is no ditch on the surface after operation, and the vegetation damage is small, but the crushing effect on the plough bottom is weak. Interval subsoiling generally adopts chisel subsoiling shovel. The bottom layer of the plow has a good crushing effect, but there are ditches on the surface after operation. All regions can choose according to different needs

(III) work tools

subsoiling machines are divided into omni-directional subsoiling machines and interval subsoiling machines, which can be selected according to different subsoiling time and agronomic requirements. Subsoiling is a heavy-duty operation, which needs to be towed by large and medium-sized tractors. The tractor power should be selected according to different tillage depths and soil specific resistance; The selection of subsoiling machines and tools should consider the matching of tillage width and tractor track width to avoid tractor partial traction or missed tillage

v. mechanization technology of corn precision sowing

(I) technical content

corn precision sowing machinery

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